Algeria, al Jaza’ir – in Arabic
Al Jumhuriyah al Jaza’iriyah ad Dimuqratiyah ash Sha’biyah
short form: Al Jaza’ir
int’l long form: People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
int’l short form: Algeria
ISO Country Code: dz
Actual Time: Fri-Oct-18 01:30
Local Time = UTC +1h
Country Calling Code: +213
Capital City: Algiers (Alger, Algier)
(pop.) 3 000 000
Currency: Algerian Dinar (DZD)
Principal Towns: Oran, Constantine, Annaba, Blida, Setif, Sidi be Abbes.
Independence: 5 July 1962 (from France).
Algeria is Africa’s second largest country, covering an area of nearly 2.5 million square miles. Algeria’s indigenous Berber people has been under foreign rule for much of the last 3000 years. The Phoenicians (1000 BC) and the Romans (200 BC) were the most important of these. With the incursion of Muslim Arabs in the 7th-8th century into the region, Islamic influence came to the Berbers and almost a millenium of domination by Arab dynasties.
In the beginning of the 16th century the region was placed under protection of the ottoman Sultan of Istanbul, followed by reigns of ottoman beys, pachas, and aghas, brought to an end with the beginning of the French colonization in 1830. The French occupation condemned Algeria’s population to economic, social and political inferiority and caused an armed resistance lasting for decades. After a century of rule by France, Algeria became independent in 1962 and Arabic became official language – with a little help of Quran teachers from Egypt and Saudi Arabia.
Since then le pouvoir (“the power”), an elite of business leaders and generals behind a democratic façade has run Algeria.
Algeria is a member state of the League of Arab States
border countries: Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia
related countries: France
Location: Northern Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea on the north, Morocco, Western Sahara and Mauritania on the west, Mali and Niger on the south, and Libya and Tunisia on the east.
Area: 2.38 million km²
Terrain: Algeria consists of four regions: the coastal mountainous chain. Plains and high plateaus. The mountainous chain of the interior. The area of the Grand Sud with its mountainous solid masses.
Mediterranean in the north, mild, wet winters with hot, dry summers along coast; drier with cold winters and hot summers on high plateau; dry or desert climate for the extreme south of the country; sirocco is a hot, dust/sand-laden wind especially common in summer.People:
Population: 37 million (2012)
Ethnic groups: ~ Arab 83%, Berber 17%, Touareg, European less than 1%.
Religions: Sunni Muslim (state religion) 99%, Christian and Jewish 1%.
Languages: Arabic (official), French, Tamazight and other Berber dialects.
Literacy: total population, 70%; male 78.8%, female 61% (2003 est.)
Natural resources: Rich deposits of iron ore, phosphates, lead, zinc and antimony; deposits of petroleum and natural gas.
Agriculture products: Wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits; sheep, cattle.
Industries: Petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing.