Egypt

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Official Name:
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
Short form: Misr
Int’l short form: Egypt
Int’l long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

ISO Country Code: eg
Local Time = UTC +2h
Egypt does not observe Daylight Saving Time (DST) since 2011

Country Calling Code: +20

Capital City: Cairo (al-Qa hirah)
(pop. estimated 19 million in metropolitan area)

Other Cities: 
Alexandria (6 million), Aswan, Asyut, Port Said,Suez, Ismailia

Government:
Type: Republic run by a Military junta
Independence: 1922 (from the UK)
Constitution: 1971

Geography:
Location:Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip
Area: 1 million sq. km (386 000 sq. mi.)
Terrain: mostly Desert, except the Nile valley and delta.

Climate: Dry, hot summers; moderate winters

People:
Nationality: Egyptian(s)
Population: 82 million (2012)
Ethnic groups: Egyptian, Bedouin Arab, Nubian
Religions: Sunni Muslim 90%, Coptic Christian
Languages: Arabic (official), English, French
Literacy–total adult: 55.2%, male: 66.6%, female: 43.6%.

Natural resources: Petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.

Agriculture products: Cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats.

Industries: Textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals.

Currency: Egyptian Pound (EGP)

Background:
In about 3100 B.C., Egypt was united under a ruler known as Mena, or Menes, who inaugurated the 30 pharaonic dynasties into which Egypt’s ancient history is divided — the Old and the Middle Kingdoms and the New Empire. The pyramids at Giza (near Cairo), which were built in the fourth dynasty, testify the power of the pharaonic religion and state.

Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Nominally independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II.
The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile river in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt.

A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure.

In January 2011, a popular protest began against the Mubarak government, the objective of the protest was for the removal of Mubarak from power. Hosni Mubarak ruled the country since 14 October 1981. The former Egyptian politician and military commander was ousted after 18 days of demonstrations during the what is today known as the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
(Source: various sources)

Egypt is a member state of the League of Arab States

border countries: Palestinian territory (Gaza Strip), Israel, Libya, Sudan

related countries: United Kingdom


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